The Treaty

“To establish a foundation for the exercise of contemporary Indigenous Nation sovereignty, without regard to existing or future international political boundaries of non-Indigenous nations.” Preamble to the United League of Indigenous Nations Treaty of August 1, 2007.

Key Treaty Provisions

1. Protecting our cultural properties . . . by affirming that our Indigenous laws are prior and paramount,

2. Protecting our Indigenous lands, air and waters from environmental destruction resulting from global warming through exercising our rights of political representation . . . before all national and international bodies.

3. Engaging in mutually beneficial trade and commerce between Indigenous nations and the economic enterprises owned “collectively” by the citizens of our Indigenous nations.




Eleven Indigenous Nations, including representatives from the US, Canada,

Aotearoa (New Zealand) and Australia, meeting on the homelands of the Lummi

Indian Nation near Bellingham, Washington, concluded negotiations and reached

agreement on an historic Treaty of Indigenous Nations on August 1, 2007.

The Treaty establishes an international political and economic alliance to

advance their common interests regarding the impacts of climate change on their

homelands, to promote trade and commerce among Indigenous Nations, to bring

their cultural properties under the protection of the laws of Indigenous Nations, to

protect the human rights of Indigenous Peoples and to assert traditional rights to

cross international borders.

The original signatory Indigenous Nations immediately called for the establishment

of a United League of Indigenous Nations to be chartered under the law of the

Lummi Nation and for the League to reach out to all Indigenous Nations in North

America and the South Pacific. Indigenous Nations located across the US, Canada,

Australia and on the Islands of Aotearoa will be asked to sign the Treaty and to

join the League as equal members at a formal “Treaty Ratification Meeting” on

November 15th, 2007, in Denver, Colorado.

The Treaty was developed and proposed by the National Congress of American

Indians’ Special Committee on Indigenous Nation Relationships following

meetings with the Assembly of First Nations, Canada, the Mataatua Assembly of

Maori Tribes of Aotearoa, (New Zealand) and the Ngarrindjeri Nations of South

Australia. At the request of the NCAI Special Committee, the leadership of the

Lummi Indian Nation agreed to host and convene the gathering of indigenous

nation political leadership to discuss the Treaty. In developing the Treaty, the NCAI

Special Committee determined that relationships between indigenous nations

are defined by the laws of indigenous nations, not by the laws of former colonial

nations. Such colonial laws are not regarded as binding on the ability of Indigenous

Nations to recognize and affi rm their inherent rights of self determination and self

governance by entering into nation-to-nation agreements with each other for their

mutual interest and benefit.

During their Treaty deliberations the Indigenous Nation delegates agreed:

1.) The Treaty will unify the voice of Indigenous Peoples, identify the impacts of climate

change on our traditional homelands and seek independent representation of these concerns before

international bodies.

2.) The Treaty will serve as a political alliance to assert the primacy of indigenous nation

law regarding the definition of rights to the cultural properties, sacred objects and traditional

knowledge base of each indigenous nation.

3.) The Treaty creates a structure to facilitate and regulate inter-tribal and inter-indigenous nation

trade and commerce, an economic alliance for mutual support and benefit in the pursuit of

indigenous nation self-sufficiency and sustainability.

4.) The Treaty will unify the efforts of member nations regarding border-crossing rights and in

the protection of human rights.

To view the Treaty:

Treaty signing at Lummi Nation on August 1st, 2007

Treaty singing during NCAI on November 7th, 2007

For further information on the Treaty signatories see:

Contact: Alan Parker, Acting Secretary to the United League

at (360) 867-6889:,

or, Lummi Nation Policy Director, Mr. Jewell James

at (360) 384-2337 or